• Speed: The choleric temperament is quick to react. If a plan needs to be put into action, the choleric readily rises to the occasion. If someone is in danger or in need, the choleric jumps to his feet immediately. Cholerics are willing to serve and seek high ideals. They are natural leaders.
  • Intensity: The choleric has an intense and fiery temperament. The higher the challenge, the more intense is the choleric’s reaction. Ambitious ideals drive the intense choleric to the greatest of deeds or the worst of crimes. Cholerics are go-getters and self-starters.
  • Duration: A choleric temperament has reactions that endure long after an event. Cholerics keep up their energy throughout a challenge. On the one hand, they will continue a task or project to the very end. On the other hand, they are prone to hold grudges for a very long time and find forgiveness difficult. Cholerics are the engine to push projects forward, but sometimes they are so focused on the goal that they do not consider whether they have the right goal or whether they are pursuing it in a virtuous way.

Advice for Tempering

  • Virtues to seek
    • Speed: prudence, refinement, sensitivity
    • Intensity: justice, humility, meekness, gentleness, fairness, equanimity, serenity
    • Duration: patience
  • Vices to avoid
    • Speed: anger, insensitivity, lack of respect, fury, hatred
    • Intensity: pride, ambition, lack of forgiveness, being domineering or closed-minded, vanity, vehemence, unsympathetic, vainglory
    • Duration: boastfulness, arrogance, wrath, envy, stubbornness
  • Dominant Passions to Bridle
    • Anger
    • Hatred
    • Desire
  • Dormant Passions to Spur
    • Calm
    • Joy
    • Love

Examples from Western Literature